Author: Misty Patterson

Top 5 Tips To Improve Concentration

Concentration means the minds main emphasis is on one object. Concentration is needed for most everything whether solving a problem or completing a task. Everyone has the ability to concentrate. However, there are times when the mind is racing, and thoughts become disorganized, therefore, nothing can hold one’s attention for terribly long. This is where the problem arises with concentration. When someone is distracted and focusing on the one thing that needs attention, is impossible. Concentration is not physical it is solely a mental exercise. These tips are sure to improve the ability to concentrate even when life is full of distractions.In order to concentrate one must have the capability to accomplish only one objective at a point in time. The skill to spotlight on one task at a time is an essential key to concentration. One simply has to make priorities. This means for the moment pay no attention to some things in support of others. Refusing to pay attention to certain tasks does not suggest they are not necessary it just means they are less important at this point. This requires giving projects ratings of importance in order to figure out which projects are priorities over others and the scheduling of those priorities. Doing one thing at a time helps develop concentration whereas multitasking will only cause distractions.Make a point to stop and see. Often thinking too many causes people to miss the world around them. In order to develop focus, and pay attention to try to look at things as if one is seeing them for the first time. Seeing something for the first time will help to stay in the zone and stay totally focused on the task. Detail never noticed is experienced, and that can improve concentration.

An enemy of concentration is procrastination. Postponing tasks is not very productive. The first step to avoid procrastination is to find out why someone procrastinates. Is it because they are afraid, a perfectionist or just easily distracted. Set time limits for projects. By eliminating fears and distractions that take up precious time, everyone may be able to overcome procrastinating. Harnessing thoughts and saying no to outside distractions is mental conformity. One has to develop the ability to say no not now and carry on with the task in order to concentrate on something. Concentration is simply mental compliance.

Learning to work through frustration is essential in successfully achieving something that someone wants to achieve. Building endurance can make concentration better. Staying power or having endurance is to keep doing something or keep trying over long periods in spite of distraction. One method that works to build endurance is the rule of five more. When it is tempting to give up on something, just follow the do five more rule, for instance, if someone tires of writing pages of letters just write five more sentences. This strategy is highly effective and simply by just doing five more of anyone can push past the frustration in accomplishing goals and build up mental endurance.

Plan to focus. Divide tasks into manageable parts doing so creates a sense of accomplishment, which can help anyone stay motivated, and on task longer. When doing something important if other worries get in the way, and affect your concentration then writing down these worries is a valuable technique to clear the worries from the mind, will allow better concentration. Writing down worries leaves the mind free to be able to concentrate on the present task. Remember that no one is a robot. Take breaks such as a snack break or a walk to stretch and clear your mind this enhances concentration.

Watch your diet. When you feed your body junk it leads to a loss of brain power. Make sure you get awell-balancedd diet of fruits and vegetables everyday along with a daily exercise routine. Also, often times food isn’t enough for your daily intake. Consider taking a diet supplement and vitamins. Omega 3′s and other such brain vitamins will help your mind.

The ability to work without letting feelings or activities get in the way is hard, but that is what concentration is. To improve concentration requires time and mental energy. Nevertheless, it can be worth the effort. Concentration is necessary, for everyone and everyone can learn to concentrate. Improving concentration is learning a skill and learning a skill takes practice. The ability to focus is the foundation of success.

How To Wake Up Early

Anyone who has ever woken up early cannot deny the productivity gains of doing so. By waking up hours before work or school starts, individuals can participate in a number of activities without rushing. They might use the time to work out, enjoy a book, watch a television program, check emails, work on homework, or just enjoy a cup of coffee while the sun rises. Since the benefits of early rising are so great, it is puzzling why more people do not get up earlier. The truth is many people simply do not know how to wake up earlier.

Waking up at an earlier time seems like an easy task to accomplish. If someone wants to wake up an hour earlier, they can set their alarm for that time. A strange thing happens when the alarm goes off, though. Suddenly, the person no longer feels it is important to wake early. They rationalize a few more minutes sleep, roll over, hit the alarm a few times, and wake up much later. Even those with a great deal of will power in other areas of their life have a hard time conquering the snooze-button habit.

Many people think they can conquer their morning alarm battle by going to bed earlier. If they usually get seven hours of sleep, they simply count backwards from their anticipated waking time. If they want to wake at 6:00 a.m., they go to bed at 11:00 p.m. The problem with this strategy is that going to bed is not the same thing as going to sleep. If a person is not tired at 11:00 p.m., but they force themselves to lie in bed for an hour, they are wasting an entire hour that could be spent doing something else. Wasted time through an unnatural bedtime defeats the purpose of gaining time by trying to wake early.

The best way to learn how to wake up earlier is to force a habit of getting out of the bed when the alarm goes off, not force a habit of going to bed at a certain time. Individuals should go to bed when they are sleepy. The body may require different amounts of sleep on different days. After a few days of hiking, the body may need more rest than it does when days are spent in an office, for example. Allowing the body to regulate the amount of sleep one gets is much more productive than rolling around in bed for hours. If enough sleep is not gained in one night, the body will likely prompt sleep earlier the next night.

Regardless of when someone goes to bed, they should wake up at the same time each day. While the habit is being ingrained, they should set their alarm even on weekdays. When the alarm goes off, they should immediately rise from the bed and begin their day. Immediately putting clothing on helps solidify the waking experience. Lounging in pajamas can tempt someone to return to the comfortable bed for a few more minutes. Although it may be hard to learn how to wake up earlier, the more someone practices getting out of bed when the alarm goes off, the easier it will be. After several months, it will be more difficult to stay in bed than to get up and get moving!

7 Tips To Increase Your Self Confidence

Self-confidence is the key to feeling unstoppable. If you lack confidence, it will show in your demeanor and you will constantly have negative emotions that harm your mental health, such as fear and anxiety. Increasing your confidence in yourself is much easier than you might imagine and will take those negative emotions and turn them into something positive and resourceful instead.

Dress for Success

Though most of self-confidence starts with your skills, abilities and mentality, the way you look and feel about your appearance is another factor in your overall confidence. If you feel confident that you look amazing, you will reflect those feelings in the way you carry yourself and look to others. If you feel like others will judge your clothing since you feel it is grubby, dirty or even just doesn’t fit you right, you will end up hunching your shoulders and looking less confident or even scared. Putting on great clothes and knowing that you look amazing is often the first step in feeling confident.

Eat for Success

Even though you may think that the external appearance of somebody is most important, that is only half true. The next thing you need to work on is improving the inner you. Eating properly is one of the best things you can do to increase your confidence. When you feel good physically, you portray it in your everyday interactions with people. The best way to achieve this physique is to prepare healthy and clean meals. You can find great resource for things like healthy weekly menu plans at

Stopping the Worries

Worries not only sap your energy so that you walk and move with a lethargic way, but it also takes away from your confidence and stop you from achieving anything you planned. Instead of giving into worries, consider the worst that can happen. If you always consider the worst case, note that it isn’t as bad as you thought and then turn your energy to creating a great relationship or reaching those career goals, you will end up more confident and more efficient.


One problem that might impact confidence is failing or doing poorly on the first time when you try something new. While logically you might know that failing or doing poorly is the first step in learning to succeed in your endeavors, it can make you feel unsuccessful. One method of managing this situation and preventing it from occurring is visualization. Imagine succeeding in the task as vividly as possible and then try performing the task. You’ll find that you do better after visualization, which results in greater confidence.

Act Like You Are Confident

When you are not confident, ask yourself how you would act if you were and then act out the actions as you imagined them. Acting like you are confident results in gradually forming a habit of confidence and after awhile you will find that you actually are confident. When you act like something long enough, you become what you were acting.

Let Go of the Past

The past failures often drag down confidence, resulting in feeling like you will never succeed in the tasks you’ve decided to perform. Instead of getting bogged down with the past, let it go and think about the present. You cannot change the past and thinking about it will only make the situation worse. The only time you are able to currently affect is the present, so make a goal and then take steps to reach that goal immediately. You’ll find that letting go of things that are gone will make you feel more confident in your current abilities.

Ask for Help

When you are not sure about something or you feel that you are getting in over your head, asking for help will improve the situation. In fact, more often than not you’ll find that most people are willing to help after being asked. If you believe that asking for help will result in receiving the help you need, then your confidence will automatically increase because you feel that others are willing to give you assistance.

Stop Negative Internal Voices

We all have that internal voice that says “I can’t do it…I’m a failure” when we mess up, fail or are striving for a goal we haven’t yet reached. This voice is a hit to your confidence. To stop the internal voice, change the way you hear it. Instead of hearing your own voice or the voice of someone in authority in your life, make your mind register the voice as a clown, Mickey Mouse or one of the chipmunks from Alvin and the Chipmunks. These silly voices are hard to take seriously and after awhile that negativity will fade away completely.

Becoming confident doesn’t require taking any classes or never failing; instead, it requires that you keep trying and change your outlook on life. Always learning from your mistakes and trying again will increase your confidence by helping you reach your goals. You can become confident as long as you are willing to work toward that confident state of mind.

YD1336 Cavity Conversion

Conversion of the Pye 200W UHF/SHF Transponders for 1296Mhz 

First Published in DUBUS 2/96


As the TV repeater stations are being converted to solid state, a number of these cavities have appeared on the surplus market in Europe. Constructed by Pye (Phillips) as a TV transponder PA the YD1336 coaxial triode, which is similar to the Thompson TH308 series of tubes produces a linear output of 220W and a gain of 16dB at 470-860Mhz. The valve operates in class AB with a constant voltage bias supply applied to the isolated grid, the cathode being grounded to DC.

All of the assembly is constructed of thick walled silver plated brass and is designed for 24 hour operation in a install and forget environment. The input cathode circuit, is continuously tuned, as is the input coupling, which is a via a sliding arrangement onto the cathode assembly. In its original state the input lines are 3/4 lambda and the output cavity, along with the second output cavity are 1/4 lambda long.

There are three variants of the cavity,

  • LF version, 470-660MHz
  • HF Version, channel 660-780MHz
  • HF Version, channel 780-860Mhz

The only difference is the inclusion of a shorting strip to stop spurious resonances in the cathode of the two HF versions. But the highest frequency version does have low inductance fingerstock. There is a difference in the neutralising between the different variants, this is achieved by milling four of the grid fingers in the higher frequency models.

Mechanical Conversion

There is very little mechanical work required to convert the cavity to 1296Mhz, where it will function as a 3/4 wavelength anode cavity and a 5/4 cathode line.

  • Remove the output coupling cavity and coupling arrangement completely.
  • Disassemble the PA cavity, no need to touch the cathode assembly.
  • Increase the available tuning range of the anode cavity by removing the tufnel spacers from the cavitytuning posts.
  • Invert the anode tuning ring to increase the tuning range.
  • Fabricate a new output coupling probe alla OE9PMJ’s * TH308 cavity design.
  • Tap the cavity where the original output coupling was to match the new output coupling arrangement.
  • The original design uses a VERY LARGE blower which SUCKS air through the cavity. This is attached via a 24 inch length of 4 inch air hose.
  • Note there is no need for a ‘anode cavity’ fine tune, it does not suffer from drift.

Electrical Conversion

In its original service the grid was decoupled to RF and DC bias supplied to it. However when operating at 1296Mhz it was found that using the original bias supply the PA was liable to flash-overs at high power levels.

This has since been rectified by wiring the original grid wire, via a suitable meter, directly to earth. Bias is then supplied via a transistor arrangement in the cathode.

In its original condition the heaters were operated at DC, balanced to ground by a variable resistor mounted on the cathode assembly.

YD 13336 – Typical Operating Conditions at 1296Mhz

  • Heaters 6.0 to 6.3V AC or DC at 4.8 to 5.8A  (6V recommended)
  • HT 3000V 0.5A
  • Zero Anode Current 200mA
  • Grid Current 0.5mA
  • Cathode Heating Time 180 seconds
  • Output 500W
  • Drive 30W

As with the vast majority of TV transponder triodes, the most important factor is the low grid dissipation i.e. practically none. I have seen 700W from the cavity, but it is somewhat thrashing the tube. However, it will run at 400-500W key down all day with no thermal drift, typical drive requirement being 30-40W.

Though the YD1336 is designed to operate in any position, I am sure that mounting the cavity vertical, as originally installed, will reduce the possibility of grid sag when operating under adverse conditions.

YD 1336 – Manufactures Maximum Conditions

  • Anode Volts 3500V
  • Anode dissipation 1800W
  • Cathode Current 0.7A
  • Grid Current 5mA

* 1296 Mhz PA using TH308 by OE9PMJ – DUBUS 4/85

The dimensions to set the cavities tuning sliders for resonance on 1296Mhz